Full list of treatments


Advantages of dental implants

They imitate natural teeth and thus guarantee a beautiful smile. This will certainly enhance your self-confidence and well-being.
• They enable the safe mastication of even the hardest foods.
• They help to maintain a youthful face as they prevent jawbone resorption that leads to face collapses and altered jaw and facial structures. In addition, the restoration of missing teeth will ensure facial skin elasticity and wrinkle-free lips.


• They reduce the risk of speech defects or lisping due to the perfect affixation of dentures or crowns to implants.
• They make an ideal match for the remaining teeth.
Things you should know about dental implants

Both dental implant and crown procedures can be completed in a single visit! Full in-office pre-surgical diagnostics can also be provided.
An implant is a titanium artificial tooth root, measuring over ten millimetres, which
is surgically anchored into the jaw. It is a tooth-root replacement to which an implant

crown is attached – the only visible part in the mouth.

Implants mimic natural teeth and can fully take over the role and function of missing teeth. On top of that, advanced prosthetic technologies allow the construction of crowns that resemble natural teeth.
Dental implants are made from titanium – a metal that is known to be compatible with human body. This minimizes the risk of subsequent allergic reactions or implant rejection. Implants are additionally coated with a thin film that enhances osteocyte formation, and eventually allows permanent implant fixation within the jawbone. It becomes a very stable and long-lasting base for the crown that is later affixed to the implant.
• Implant fixation within the jawbone not only guarantees stability of crowns, but it also prevents bone loss that occurs after tooth loss. Moreover, the jawbone formation process prevents further possible complications, such as shifting teeth and/or altered jaw and facial structures.
Most dental implants do not require hospitalization and can be placed in-office under local anaesthesia in a single visit. The level of invasiveness is comparable to the tooth removal procedure. In Duda Clinic, we have been placing dental implants for many years. Thus, single implant placement may take as short as 15 minutes in our Clinic.
For teeth placed in the most visible part of the patient’s mouth, we utilize full ceramic crowns made from high quality porcelain to obtain the best aesthetic effect. This material, like natural teeth, is partially translucent and offers a broad range of colours to match the shade of the patient’s surrounding teeth.
For out-of-sight molars, metal ceramic crowns are usually used. This type of material is very robust and can better withstand biting and chewing forces.
Whether you have any questions or doubts, feel free to use our online contact form. We will be happy to help you!




Dental scaling is the removal of mineralized deposits called calculus (or tartar) from tooth surfaces. For this purpose, ultrasonic scalers are used. These most high-tech devices use ultrasonic vibrations to help break both plaque and calculus on tooth surfaces. Thus, manual scaling that uses pressure for cleaning is no longer necessary. Also, a thin ultrasonic scaler tip can reach places below the gum line and between teeth so that the calculus can easily break and come off. Therefore, this cleaning process causes no damage to the enamel and thus is non-invasive.




Air abrasion is a part of preventive dental care that aims at removing plaque or stains from tooth surfaces. When used regularly, it can prevent tartar build-up.

The air abrasion process, like sandblasting, uses a stream of fine particles that is blasted onto the surface of your teeth. In most cases, the procedure is not painful, thus anaesthesia is not needed.


Since the particles bounce off the tooth and touch the gums, patients may feel a slight prickling sensation.

Who can benefit from air abrasion?

The best candidates for air abrasion are patients who need to have stains from coffee, tea or tobacco removed. Also, air abrasion can be used to remove bacterial plaque. This further prevents patients from developing tartar build-up, tooth decay, gingivitis or periodontal disease.

Orthodontic patients can also benefit from the air abrasion procedure, as it can remove residues and bacterial plaque from areas that are difficult to access at this point of treatment.

This procedure is an excellent method to get your teeth thoroughly cleaned and should be performed at least once a year.



Fluoride varnish treatment consists in providing the teeth with an adequate dose of fluoride. Currently, a wide range of fluoride-containing products can be found on the market. They include toothpastes, mouth rinses, dental flosses, and chewing gums. However, in-office fluoride varnish treatment performed by a dental professional is more beneficial when compared to at-home dental care.


More precisely, dentists use higher fluoride concentrations which, after being applied to the enamel, will last many hours. Also, once fluoride is incorporated into the enamel, the teeth become more resistant to tooth decay. The more fluoride in the enamel, the higher the resistance to demineralization caused by acids produced by cariogenic bacteria.

However, it should be remembered that fluoride excess and deficiency can be equally harmful. That is why, products with high fluoride concentrations can be used only under the supervision of a dentist. The procedure can be performed in both adults and children, including the primary and permanent teeth. The procedure is painless and does not cause teeth discoloration.




Dental sealants are another kind of preventive treatment against tooth decay. Here, however, a tooth-coloured acrylic coating is applied onto the surface of the tooth to seal deep pits and fissures and set it with a curing light. Sealants are usually applied on the back teeth (molars and premolars) to act as a barrier against food particles and bacteria that neither brushing nor flossing can reach. When correctly performed, the effectiveness of this treatment is high, reducing tooth decay by as much as 90%.


Dental sealants are particularly recommended for children. It is important to apply dental sealants as soon as the primary teeth come in to prevent bacteria growth. If this is your case, it is recommended that you make an appointment with your dentist to schedule the date of your child’s first dental sealant treatment.



Dental sealants are another kind of preventive treatment against tooth decay. Here, however, a tooth-coloured acrylic coating is applied onto the surface of the tooth to seal deep pits and fissures and set it with a curing light. Sealants are usually applied on the back teeth (molars and premolars) to act as a barrier against food particles and bacteria that neither brushing nor flossing can reach. When correctly performed, the effectiveness of this treatment is high, reducing tooth decay by as much as 90%.


Dental sealants are particularly recommended for children. It is important to apply dental sealants as soon as the primary teeth come in to prevent bacteria growth. If this is your case, it is recommended that you make an appointment with your dentist to schedule the date of your child’s first dental sealant treatment.




This examination procedure is used in cases where a complex and detailed diagnosis is needed. Computed tomography allows 3D maxillary reconstruction and imaging, and thereby significantly increases diagnostic possibilities.

CT examination is a routine procedure performed before dental implant surgery, among other procedures. It allows our implantologist to take accurate measurements and do detailed pre-surgical planning by selecting proper implant types, placement sites and methods. Based on this, the whole treatment process can be completed in the shortest time possible.

ROOT CANALS (endodontics)

Root canal treatment (also known as endodontics) aims at removing the inflamed or infected soft pulp (nerve) tissue. The chamber and empty canals are then cleaned, disinfected and prepared to receive a special filling. The treatment is performed to prevent tooth extraction. Properly root-treated and restored teeth can serve for many years to come. A local anaesthetic is used for this procedure to make it painless for the patient.


Microscope-assisted root canal treatment

Duda Clinic can provide professional – and above all – efficient root canal treatment with the use of the latest technologies. For this purpose, an endodontic microscope is used. It allows the accurate identification of previously undetectable dental structures, as well as better visualization and management of the complex root canal anatomy. This deep insight into the very fine details inside the tooth enhances the treatment process and allows the dentist to follow each treatment stage.

Microscope-assisted root canal treatment is particularly recommended when:

it is difficult to determine the root canals due to the complex tooth anatomy;
root canals are either narrow or fused;
a piece of an endodontic instrument left in the canal needs to be removed;
old root canal filling material needs to be removed;
root fractures need to be detected.
Root canal retreatment (Reendo)

Root canal retreatment, also called repeat canal treatment, can be more difficult than initial root canal therapy. This may be due to the complex tooth anatomy, mineralized deposits, and/or incorrectly conducted previous treatment.

It is a complex procedure that requires both the use of modern devices and highly experienced dental professionals. After the root canal filling material has been removed, the source of pain is identified. It may be caused by unfilled root canals or a broken instrument left in the tooth canal, among other problems. Further treatment process is similar to a routine root canal therapy.




Prosthetics allow the restoration of missing or damaged teeth. This is achieved through a variety of processes including the construction of crowns or bridges. We use up-to-date procedures and provide high quality prosthetics to bring back your beautiful smile.

Prosthetics offered…


Permanent restorations:

-Porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns
-Porcelain-fused-to-gold crowns
-Full ceramic crowns
Removable dentures:

-Acrylic dentures
-Nylon dentures
-Skeletal dentures



White, healthy teeth and a beautiful smile enhance both well-being and self-confidence. Oftentimes, however, we are not satisfied with the shade of our teeth. Despite good dental hygiene, they may be naturally yellow. In addition, discoloration can naturally take place as a result of drinking tea, coffee, using tobacco, certain medications, and consuming coloured foods. If deeply penetrated the tooth structure, it is difficult to remove using standard methods.


Before bleaching, the state of the teeth and gums is examined, and the general health of the oral cavity is assessed to ensure safety. Afterwards, the dentist proposes the safest and most suitable treatment to achieve the best result.





Duda Clinic is among very few dental clinics in Poland offering patients the possibility of local anaesthesia with the DentalVibe Injection Comfort System. It is a small device with disposable, one-time-use tips that provide gentle vibrations at irregular intervals. While the tissues at the injection site are vibrating, the injection is administered, and the vibrations reach the brain before the pain does. No other anaesthetics need to be administered. On that account, this is excellent news for those with needle phobias, as well as for children who are particularly sensitive to pain.


The disposable one-time-use tips guarantee 100% safety and hygiene.


In Duda Clinic, you may also avail yourself of procedural sedation and analgesia to have your dental surgical procedures comfortably performed. This technique involves slow intravenous administration of analgesics (pain killers) and sedatives (tranquillizers) so that the patient can be relieved of the pain and anxiety while remaining conscious. This kind of anaesthesia can be maintained up to several hours during e.g. dental implant placement. It is particularly recommended for patients who suffer from dental phobia.

In more difficult cases, general anaesthesia can be administered. It is an intravenous procedure during which the patient remains unconscious for about 15 to 20 minutes. It is carried out by a certified anaesthesiologist. This service is available at Duda Clinic.


Sedation dentistry options are perfect for patients, both adults and children, with dental phobia and who find dental treatment particularly stressful. Their role is to eliminate anxiety and fear in patients undergoing dental treatment. Inhalation sedation uses a combination of nitrous oxide (N2O) and oxygen (O2) that is inhaled through a nasal hood or cannula. As a result, the patient can fall into a pleasant state of relaxation without being fully detached from the environment. Children should be accompanied by parents when inhalation sedation is being administered. Their presence allows them to feel both safe and comfortable. Inhalation sedation should supplement, rather than replace, traditional forms of anaesthesia to provide a higher level of comfort during various treatment procedures. This service is available at Duda Clinic.



Benefits of same-day urology

-Shorter wait times
-Reduced risk of infection
-Reduced surgical stress
-Shorter operation time
-No extensive or disfiguring scars
-Reduced recovery time to resume both daily and work activities

Many of the offered treatments are minimally invasive procedures. This guarantees shorter operation time and quick return to daily activities. Patients are discharged


within 24 hours. The use of the latest endoscopic technology allows for a significant reduction of surgical invasiveness.




What is a varicocele?

A varicocele is an abnormality in the testicular venous drainage system manifested as improperly dilated and tortuous veins of the pampiniform venous plexus. Consequently, the blood outflow becomes limited and the temperature becomes increased. This causes testicular cells to be exposed to hypoxia and a higher concentration of adverse substances like catecholamines, cortisol and renin. Varicoceles are considered the most common cause of both primary and secondary infertility in males.


Signs and symptoms

Varicoceles tend to be asymptomatic and are usually detected when investigating the cause of infertility. Possible signs and symptoms may include:

a palpable mass in the scrotum above the testicle typically on the left side;
discomfort, heaviness and dull pain in the scrotum or groin;
exacerbations during erection.


Our experienced specialists can provide comprehensive diagnostics. The first stage includes a visit with our urologist who will take your medical history and then perform a physical exam. If varicoceles are suspected, an ultrasound will be performed to see if the veins are dilated by means of the Valsalva manoeuvre (stretching out the abdominal muscle). Then, the results will be evaluated by your doctor who will decide on further treatment.


The only effective method to treat varicoceles is surgery. In Nova Clinic, we perform laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia. For better therapeutic effects, we use modern ligating clips that guarantee better tightness when compared to traditional ligation procedures. The surgery takes around 30 minutes.

Why laparoscopic varicocelectomy?

Laparoscopic procedures offer more advantages versus standard methods. They include:

Shorter treatment and recovery time
Smaller incision and thus better cosmetic effects
Less emotional stress due to a shorter hospital stay
Minimized invasiveness and traumatization
Fewer complications

Treatment outcomes

In most patients, both signs and symptoms disappear. In addition, semen parameters also improve.



What is a hydrocele?

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the space surrounding the testicle leading to characteristic signs and symptoms. Hydroceles tend to be unilateral.

Signs and symptoms
Most common manifestations:

-The scrotum becomes enlarged.


-The scrotal skin becomes tense and smooth.
-The scrotal skin is neither red nor painful.
-The scrotum becomes translucent due to the accumulated fluid dispersing the incident light.
-The scrotum changes in size during the day (bigger in the evening than in the morning).

Complications if untreated

By increasing in size, hydroceles can lead to:

difficulty walking,
infertility (fluid can adversely affect the sperm production process).


A detailed medical history and a physical exam will be the first step for our experienced urologists to make a differential diagnosis. This means that they will create a list of symptoms typical of other diseases marked by similar course, for example, inguinal hernia. For a more accurate assessment, an ultrasound scan will be performed. This modern technology will help the doctor to either confirm or rule out the presence of a hydrocele. If present, the ultrasound scan will allow your doctor to determine its exact size.


Once a definite diagnosis is established, a treatment option will be selected by your urologist. In Nova Clinic, hydroceles can be treated surgically in a modern operating theatre under general anaesthesia. In this way, the patient can remain unconscious throughout the whole procedure and is discharged home on the same day.




What is phimosis?

Phimosis is considered the most significant developmental defect in the penis. It involves an excessive narrowing of the foreskin opening, which makes it impossible for the foreskin to be retracted from the glans of the penis. Both in infants and boys up to 3 years of age, phimosis can be considered a physiological condition. At an older age, however, it is regarded as an abnormality, which should be consulted with a urology professional. In teenage boys or adult males, phimosis is diagnosed when the foreskin cannot be pulled back past the glans, or it can be pulled back only partially.


Signs and symptoms

Difficulty urinating causing urine retention
Infections accompanied by pain and burning sensations caused by balanitis and/or posthitis
Painful erection

It predisposes toward developing sexually transmitted infections (STI), which makes treatment difficult.
It can induce hernia development.
It can cause fertility problems.
It can cause chronic infections in a sexual partner.
It can lead to stasis in the upper urinary tract.
If untreated, it can lead to cancer.


Patients are qualified for surgical treatment by our skilled urologists. Prior to the surgery, pharmacological treatment of the infected foreskin may be applied, if needed. This will ensure better final outcomes.



What is a prostate biopsy (TRU-CUT)?

Prostate biopsy (TRU-CUT) is a procedure in which several small samples are collected from the prostate gland to be later examined under a microscope by a histopathologist.

What is the goal of prostate biopsy?

The procedure aims at determining whether any prostate cancer cells are present in the collected samples.

When is a prostate biopsy performed?


Prostate biopsy is typically performed after a rectal (per rectum) exam has shown any abnormalities and the level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen that helps to diagnose the presence of prostate diseases) is increased.

Is a prostate biopsy painful?

In Nova Clinic, prostate biopsies are performed under local anaesthesia, which is both safe and sufficient for patients. This makes the procedure pain-free, yet some slight discomfort may still be experienced.

Prostate biopsy STEP BY STEP

The patient lies down on the couch with his or her back up and knees pulled up to the stomach.
A special gel is applied to numb the examination area.
The doctor inserts a special ultrasound probe through the anus.
Under the guidance of ultrasound, the doctor takes some samples for examination.
The samples are then evaluated by a histopathologist under a microscope.




What is the prostate and its function?

The prostate gland (lat. prostata) is an azygous organ also described as a walnut-sized gland. The prostate surrounds the urethra, and thus both the anatomical and functional features of the gland influence the patency and function of the urethra. In order for the prostate to function properly, it needs a hormone called testosterone that is released by the testicles. Also, the prostate secretes fluid that is a sperm component.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate adenoma, is a common cause of both discomfort and voiding dysfunction in men over 50 years of age. This condition is considered a natural consequence of aging and its incidence increases with age. Elevated concentration levels of male sex hormones are also responsible for the development of BPH.

The prostate becomes enlarged due to an increased number of glandular cells and muscle fibres. However, these cells are categorized as normal. Therefore, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a non-malignant tumour. This enlarged gland presses on the urethra, narrowing its lumen and thus making it difficult for patients to pass urine.

Signs and symptoms

-Urinary frequency
-Nocturia > 1 time
-Urinary urgency
-Urinary incontinence
-Urinary hesitancy or terminal dribbling
-Weak stream
-Interrupted stream
-Prolonged stream

Sometimes, other serious diseases of both the prostate and the urinary bladder (e.g. prostate cancer) may show similar symptoms. That is why, extra vigilance is needed. In the event the above symptoms occur, it is necessary to schedule an appointment with one of our urology professionals who can provide an accurate differential diagnosis.


The clinical diagnosis is based on:

A detailed medical history: The patient will be asked to complete the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).
This questionnaire contains 7 questions about urinary symptoms and one question about life quality.

Evaluation of the patient’s sexual life.
A digital rectal exam: It is a quick, non-invasive and painless examination performed under local anaesthesia. It allows our specialists to evaluate the prostate gland and decide on further diagnostic methods.

Blood tests: urea and creatinine.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): It is a specialized blood test for the PSA marker. The normal concentration level varies between 0 and 4 ng/ml and increases with age and volume of the prostate. The general rule is that a consistent increase in PSA, even within the normal range, does not exclude abnormalities within the gland. The PSA is considered an important risk factor for prostate cancer and thus should be performed in every man over 50 years of age.
The urologist can also recommend other diagnostic procedures such as:

Urinary bladder ultrasound to help determine the structure of the urinary tract and check for urinary retention.
Uroflowmetry to help determine the strength and intensity of the urinary stream in ml/s.


Treatment of BPH depends on the presenting symptoms. After a thorough diagnosis has been conducted, the doctor together with the patient select the most effective treatment option.

Laser prostatectomy: The GreenLight XPS™ Laser PVP

Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is an innovative technique that has revolutionized BPH treatment by minimizing its invasiveness. The laser PVP surgery system utilizes the so called GreenLight XPS™ laser.

The PVP procedure is performed under general anaesthesia administered by a qualified anaesthesiologist. The surgeon inserts a cystoscope through the urethra to the prostate gland. Then, a thin fibre is run through the cystoscope into the prostate. The nearby tissues that cause obstruction are evaporated. The surgeon can view all images on a video screen. This innovative technology and minimized invasiveness enable the patient to be discharged home on the same day.

Studies show that the GreenLight XPS™ Laser technology leads to significantly fewer complications both during and after the procedure compared to other methods of BPH treatment.

PVP technology reduces the risk of complications such as:

-erectile dysfunction,
-bleeding during and after surgery,
-urinary incontinence,
-urethral stricture,
-retrograde ejaculation.

Is Greenlight XPS™ Laser PVP treatment right for me?
All patients diagnosed with BPH who have consulted with their urologist can be treated with this innovative technique. Since it is a safe treatment method, even patients previously disqualified due to cardiac diseases or blood coagulation disorders can also undergo this procedure.



What is a cystoscopy?

Cystoscopy is a diagnostic surgical procedure that allows the visualization of the inside of the bladder.

What are the reasons for having a cystoscopy?

Cystoscopy is performed to either confirm or exclude the presence of tumours, stones or other bladder abnormalities.


How long does a cystoscopy take?

The procedure takes about 5 to 15 minutes.

What are the indications for a cystoscopy?

Major indications include:

-a follow-up after the resection of bladder tumour,
-congenital defects (confirmed or suspected) of the urethra and/or the bladder,
-idiopathies within the pelvic area.

Is a cystoscopy painful?

Before a cystoscopy, patients may be administered general anaesthesia to help them sleep through the procedure. Another option includes local anaesthesia using a special gel. Both the attending doctor and the anaesthetist will advise the patient about the best and safest type of anaesthesia, which will be administered only upon prior patient consent.




What is TUR-BT?

This is an endoscopic procedure that is used to remove a bladder tumour. This is the first-line treatment of non-invasive bladder cancer.

TUR-BT treatment is a special procedure that shows both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. This means that bladder tumours are removed and sent to a histopathologist for evaluation.

When is TUR-BT performed?


This procedure is typically performed after both a cystoscopy and an ultrasound scan have shown abnormalities.

IS TUR-BT painful?

The procedure is performed under general anaesthesia, and so the patient remains unconscious and feels no pain.

What is bladder cancer prevalence?

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in males. The number of cases increases with age. This type of cancer is three times more frequent in men, but an upward trend in women has recently been observed.

What are treatment options?

The only effective method to treat bladder cancer is surgery. The most frequently diagnosed bladder cancer type is the so called superficial bladder cancer, which accounts for 80% of cases.

How long does TUR-BT take?

It depends on the size and number of bladder tumours. On average, it takes from several minutes to over one hour.

When is the patient discharged home?

With the use of the state-of-the-art equipment available at our Clinic, TUR-BT can be performed as a same-day surgical procedure, and thus the patient can return home on the same day.



TOT and TVT procedures

What is urinary incontinence?

Urinary incontinence (UI) is an involuntary (uncontrolled) urination that leads to either partial or complete emptying of the urinary bladder.


Urinary incontinence can occur at any age and in both sexes. However, it mostly affects elderly people. In addition, urinary incontinence


is more frequently reported in women (even 1 in 5 women over 40 years of age) than men. At the age of 80, half of women and one-third of men will suffer from urinary incontinence. Also, the higher the number of pregnancies and births, the bigger the risk of urinary incontinence.

Types and presentation

Common types of chronic urinary incontinence include:

-Stress urinary incontinence
-Overactive bladder (urgency)
-Overflow incontinence
-Functional incontinence
-Mixed urinary incontinence
-Stress urinary incontinence is the most common type of incontinence and occurs when weak pelvic muscles fail to properly tighten the urethra. This causes uncontrolled urine leakage from the bladder once the pressure builds up. It most often occurs while walking, exercising, coughing, sneezing, or laughing.

-Overactive bladder, also called urgency, is a type of incontinence wherein patients feel an urgent need to urinate, and which happens anyway within a few seconds. This is usually triggered in certain situations.

-Overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder is full and often very stretched but is not emptying well due to an obstruction. One symptom of overflow incontinence is frequently urinating a very small amount without control. It is most common for men with an enlarged prostate gland.

-Functional incontinence occurs when people have no access to the toilet due to physical, psychological or social reasons e.g. long-term immobilization.

-Mixed urinary incontinence is a combination of stress urinary incontinence and urgency.


The clinical diagnosis is based on:

A detailed medical history taken by our qualified urologist.
Note: if you possess medical records from previous visits, hospitalization (especially gynaecological, urological and neurological), please take them with you.

A physical exam that may include:
-abdominal examination
-gynaecological examination
-per rectum examination
-neurological examination
-abdominal and pelvic ultrasound, which will allow your doctor to assess the urinary –tract and the surrounding areas.

Urine tests to check for urinary infections:
-urinalysis with sediment evaluation
-urine culture

Evaluation of the amount of residual urine after urination.

Cystourethroscopy: This is a minimally-invasive endoscopic procedure that helps to check for any abnormalities in the urinary tract that could be the cause of UI. It is performed under local anaesthesia.

These are the best diagnostic studies to assess the bladder function.
After all reports have been reviewed by your urologist, you will be informed which therapeutic option is most suitable for you.


In Nova Clinic, we use both non-invasive and minimally-invasive methods to treat urinary incontinence.

Minimally-invasive UI treatment:

TVT (tension free vaginal tape) is a modern method to treat urinary incontinence using a prolene mesh tape placed underneath the mid-urethra to provide support. The effectiveness of this method is estimated at as high as 95%.

TOT (trans obturator tape) is a procedure that also utilizes a synthetic tape inserted underneath the mid-urethra. This time, however, the tape is not placed upwards, or retropubically, but between the so-called obturator foramens. The tape runs more horizontally to prevent complications that tend to occur when it is placed retropubically.




Vasectomy is a simple surgical procedure, during which the vas deferens is cut and tied or sealed to prevent sperm from entering the urethra.

It is by far the most effective male birth control measure and a means of contraception.
Vasectomy is an ideal solution for men who are convinced that they do not want to have more children and at the same time want to feel safe and satisfied with sexual intercourse with no need for additional contraceptives.


Benefits of vasectomy

It is over 99.9% effective, which is more when compared to hormonal contraceptives and condoms.
It is safe for your health.
It is reliable and very popular in the USA and Western Europe.
All male sexual functions remain intact.
In the long run, it is the most cost-effective birth control measure.
It is a one-time expense with no need for additional contraception.
It improves sexual life by eliminating the stress factor associated with the risk of unwanted pregnancy.
It eliminates discomfort associated with the use of other forms of contraception, especially on the part of women.
There are no side effects.
Hormonal activity of the glands remains intact.
Although it is possible to have vasectomy reversal procedure, which is to restore the patency of the vas deferens, it may not always be successful.
Vasectomy should be treated as a lifetime decision. However, it is possible to store your semen in a sperm bank or collect your sperm from the testicle, which will enable you to father a child in the future.



What is urolithiasis?

Urolithiasis, also called a kidney stone disease, affects 1/10 of the population, which makes it one of the most common urologic diseases. Although individuals between 30 and 50 years of age are more prone toward developing this disease, it can occur at any age. Also, it is 2-3 times more often reported in men versus women.

Signs and symptoms

Urolithiasis may cause no symptoms if a stone is relatively stable.


When the stone starts to move within the urinary tract, it irritates the ureter, which is small in diameter. This results in a renal colic characterized by:

sudden pain of varying severity in the lumbar region radiating into the epigastrium, the hypogastrium, the inner part of the thigh, and the scrotum or labia;
a positive Goldflam’s sign;
gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea, and less frequently, intestinal obstruction);
bladder irritation (dysfunctional voiding, urgency), especially when the stone is located in the lower part of the ureter;
on rare occasions, anuria in patients with only one working kidney or bilateral ureterolithiasis.

Common complications include:

Perirenal abscesses
Acute renal failure
Urinary tract blockage

To confirm the presence and location of stones, the following diagnostic tools can be used:

Renal ultrasound
Abdominal X-ray
Spiral computed tomography
The most effective treatment options of symptomatic urolithiasis include both non-invasive and minimally invasive surgical procedures called ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In Nova Clinic, these procedures are performed using the highest quality medical equipment.

Ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) is an innovative method to treat ureterolithiasis with the use of endoscopic technology. First, a ureteroscope (part of the endoscope) is inserted into the ureter and the pelvicalyceal system to locate stones. Then, the stones are broken into pieces with the so-called holmium laser. It allows the precise fragmentation of the stones, thereby reducing damage to the surrounding tissues, which is not the case with traditional methods. Also, the use of flexible URS that can rotate up to 275° allows our doctors to remove stones with great precision and in the safest of environments. When extracting the broken pieces, specialized wire baskets are used to reduce the traumatization of the ureteral walls.

The procedure is performed under general anaesthesia and thus is painless for the patient.

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the least invasive method to treat urolithiasis. It is an outpatient procedure performed using either intravenous anaesthesia or sedation. Patients with stones between 1.5-2 cm located in the calyces or the renal pelvis can be qualified for this treatment.

The generated waves penetrate the body causing the fragmentation of stones in the kidneys or the ureter. As a result, small sand-like fragments are formed to be naturally expelled within a few hours to several months after the procedure. The ESWL method is completely safe because it is carried out under x-ray and ultrasound guidance.




Indications for intravitreal injections include:

Active choroidal neovascularization (CNV), mainly in the course of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
• Diabetic macular oedema
• Macular oedema after central retinal vein occlusion
• Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
• Neovascular glaucoma
Intravitreal injections of the anti-VEGF medications are used to treat retinal diseases that accompany exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, high myopia, and retinal vein occlusion.


VEGF is a growth factor responsible for the development of abnormal blood vessels. Patients who suffer from AMD have an increased level of VEGF. Therefore, the role of anti-VEGF drugs is to permanently inhibit the effect of VEGF.

In Nova Clinic, intravitreal injections are administered on an outpatient basis.

The procedure STEP BY STEP:

• Dilating eye drops are instilled.
• The eye is numbed and cleaned.
• A sterile lid retractor is used to prevent blinking during the procedure.
• A very thin needle is used to inject the drug into the vitreous cavity of the eye.
• The injection itself takes only about 5 minutes and may cause a slight prickling sensation.
After the procedure, you will be re-examined by your ophthalmologist who will provide you with medicinal eyedrops and a dressing that will keep your eye safe from harm until the next day following the procedure. Your eye may be slightly red and more sensitive for several days after the procedure.



What are cataracts?

A cataract is a painless eye disease wherein the naturally transparent lens becomes either partially or completely clouded or opaque. Most cataracts are age-related. However, they may also be due to sustained mechanical or chemical injuries as well as systemic diseases or other eye conditions.

Signs and symptoms

-Declined visual acuity
-Blurred vision as if looking through dirty or cloudy glasses that always seem to need cleaning


-Quick eye fatigue
-Sensitivity to intense light
-Problems with object perception
-Problems telling certain colours apart
-Declined distant vision

It is not possible to list all potential causes of cataracts as some of them are not known. It is certain, however, that lens metabolism becomes disturbed, which leads to the loss of its transparency and then blindness.


Currently, there is no medicine that could prevent or cure cataracts. The only effective treatment to restore the correct vision is surgical replacement of the cloudy lens with an artificial lens. Nova Clinic employs highly qualified specialists with many years of experience in cataract surgery. Also, we use only the latest technologies to meet the highest standards.

Ultrasonic phacoemulsification

It is considered the safest and most effective cataract treatment method and thus is also applied in Nova Clinic. The advantages include faster wound healing due to very small incisions that do not require stitches. Since the post-surgical vision returns to normal very quickly, the possibility of postoperative astigmatism is reduced. Also, it is a day-case procedure and can be performed in an outpatient surgery room.

The procedure STEP BY STEP

Before the phacoemulsification can be performed, one or more tiny incisions of 2.2-2.4 mm are made in the eye to insert surgical instruments. These instruments emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens into tiny pieces by vibrating at minimal ultrasonic frequency. Once the cloudy lens has been removed, a foldable intraocular lens implant (IOL) is inserted and placed in the pupil. The whole procedure takes about 10-20 minutes and is pain-free, as it is usually performed under local anaesthesia. It needs to be remembered that the type of anaesthesia is always selected by your anaesthesiologist. Recovery time should take only several days.

Preoperative consultation

Preoperative consultation is necessary to be qualified for the cataract surgery. It involves a detailed medical history, a physical exam and diagnostic tests.

Diagnostic tests include:

• Refractometry and keratometry
• Visual acuity test
• Eye ultrasound
• Tonometry (intraocular pressure measure)
• Lens power calculation
Before the surgery, you will be consulted with our anaesthetist to have your overall health, condition and age assessed. Based on this, the doctor can select the proper type of anaesthesia (local or general).

Ophthalmic treatments and investigations include:

• Eye surgery
• Avastin/Eylea intravitreal injections
• Cataract surgery with phacoemulsification and implantation of spherical, multifocal or blue-light-filter (yellow tinted) intraocular lenses
• Angiography
• Upper eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty)
• Entropion repair
• Ectropion repair
• Ptosis repair (tightening of the levator muscle)
• Surgical removal of minor eyelid lesions (warts, xanthelasma, cysts, nodules, angiomas)
• Chalazion treatment




Orthopaedic treatments available at Nova Clinic include:

• Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) arthroscopic reconstruction
• Knee arthroscopy
• Carpal tunnel surgery
• Bunion (hallux valgus) surgery
• Hip degeneration treatment


Endoscopy can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. It allows the visualization of the internal structures of the body by introducing a thin endoscope with a specialized camera. Endoscopic procedures are performed under either local or general anaesthesia.

In Nova Clinic, we use the highest quality endoscopes to provide both accuracy and safety of performed treatments.


In Nova Clinic, endoscopic procedures are performed to examine:
Gastrointestinal system:
• Gastroscopy
• Colonoscopy

Urinary system:
• Cystoscopy

Respiratory system:
• Laryngoscopy



General surgery

In Nova Clinic, we utilize the latest state-of-the-art equipment to perform treatments using minimally invasive methods. This enables our patients to be discharged home within 24 hours and guarantees short recovery time.

Treatments offered include:

• Abdominal hernia repair
• Gallbladder surgery
• Appendectomy
• Skin and soft tissue surgery


Nova Clinic can offer gynaecological treatments performed by highly qualified and experienced gynaecologists. The use of modern operating rooms and top-class medical equipment guarantee both safety and short recovery time.

Treatments and investigations include:

• Vaginoplasty
• Labiaplasty
• Hymenotomy
• Perineoplasty


• Cervical electrocoagulation and cryotherapy
• Colposcopy
• Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
• Cervical conization
• Cervical electroconization
• Ectocervical polyp removal
• Bartholin gland incision + marsupialization
• Bartholin gland enucleation
• Diagnostic laparoscopy
• Laparotomic ovariectomy and ovarian cystectomy
• Laparoscopic ovariectomy and ovarian cystectomy
• Laparotomic myomectomy
• Supracervical hysterectomy
• Total hysterectomy without salpingo-oophorectomy
• Total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy
• Vaginal hysterectomy
• Vaginal hysterectomy with perineoplasty
• TVT for urinary incontinence
• Cervical cancer screening tests (a pap smear)




In Nova Clinic, we can provide full diagnostics for cancer diseases and a wide range of surgical treatments performed by highly qualified staff with many years of hands on experience to guarantee effectiveness.

Treatments offered include:

• Radical mastectomy
• Simple mastectomy + sentinel node biopsy (SNB)
• Lumpectomy (breast-conserving surgery)
• Primary thyroid gland surgery
• Axillary lymph node dissection
• Melanoma surgical treatment
• Superficial parotidectomy
• Submandibulectomy
• Facial skin cancer surgery with local techniques

Otolaryngology (ENT)

ENT consultation

During a general ENT consultation, our doctors will utilize only high-tech devices, including an ENT unit equipped with a visualization system and diagnostic endoscopes. This allows patients to have a chance to actively participate in the diagnostic process. Upon the doctor’s referral, you may need to have other examinations performed such as imaging studies (CT, MRI, USG), laboratory, microbiology and hearing tests, among other investigations.
The results will then be reviewed by the doctor during your next visit. Since the conditions in the areas such as ear, nose, throat and larynx are rarely isolated, we can provide an interdisciplinary approach by combining the expertise of our ENT specialists who will diagnose and treat our patients by providing comprehensive care.


Our otolaryngologists have spent most of their career in the operating room and thus created a professional team specializing in same-day surgery in the areas like nose, throat, ear and larynx. In Nova Clinic, they can avail themselves of modern operating rooms utilizing either general or local anaesthesia administered by highly skilled anaesthesiologists.

Treatments offered include:

Septal repair

Septoplasty is a minimally invasive, corrective surgical procedure of the deviated nasal septum. It typically consists in partial submucosal resection as well as the reposition and realignment of the cartilaginous and bony structures to restore proper nasal breathing. First, a small incision is made within the nose (nasal vestibule) leaving no visible scars. Then, the lining is lifted off of the crooked cartilage and bone. These structural elements are then either removed or straightened. The lining is returned to its original place. After the septum is straightened, it may be temporarily stabilized with special splints made from non-allergic material (plastic or silastic sheets) to obtain the correct position and reduce the risk of postoperative adhesions between the septum and the nasal turbinates (which sometimes become reduced if overgrown). During the surgery, in most cases, nasal packing is applied for 12-24 hours. This causes the nose to be completely blocked and unable patients to breathe through the nose until it has been removed. Painkillers will also be given to eliminate any discomfort. Unlike rhinoplasty and rhinoseptoplasty, wherein the external nasal structures are affected, septoplasty leaves patients with no bruises or swelling around the eyes.


It is a routine surgical procedure that helps to permanently solve the problem of chronic tonsillitis when conservative treatment fails to be effective. During the surgery, the tonsils are dissected from their surrounding fascia. Any bleeding can be stopped by pressure, ligation or electrocoagulation. The procedure takes around 1 hour. Tonsillectomy is recommended for patients with chronic tonsillitis, recurrent angina (three or more episodes in the last year, five or more episodes in the last two years, seven or more episodes in the last three years), recurrent peritonsillar abscesses, halitosis caused by excessive formation of tonsil stones, or when the tonsil tumour is suspected.


It is a short and quite simple procedure performed through the oral cavity wherein the adenoid is removed with a special knife (an adenotome). In the case of any bleeding, it is stopped, and the nasopharyngeal cavity is inspected by the surgeon. Afterwards, the child is awakened by the anaesthesiologist. The procedure takes around 30-45 min. In cases with both adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy, adenotonsillectomy (A&T) is often performed. In children, palatine tonsils are not removed in total but only reduced by 30-60%. It needs to be remembered that hypertrophy may reoccur especially in children with allergies or who suffer from frequent infections.

Nasal polypectomy

The procedure is performed through the nasal cavity. A special snare is inserted into the nose to remove the polyp. After the nostrils have been inspected and the remaining polyps, if any, have been removed, your nose will be packed with dressing to control bleeding. The procedure takes about 30-60 min.

All ENT procedures available at Nova Clinic are listed below:

• Adenoidectomy
• Adenotonsillectomy
• Tonsillectomy
• Myringotomy
• Septoplasty for deviated nasal septum
• Conchoplasty
• Nasal polypectomy under general anaesthesia
• Maxillary sinus surgery
• Snoring and sleep apnoea treatment
• Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)
• Posttraumatic nasal deformity with deviated septum surgery